East Africa

Tanzania – Environmental Governance & Decision Making

Environmental Problems in Tanzania

A host of adverse environmental factors are contributing to death, disease, and instability in Tanzania, where most people live in the countryside. Unfortunately, many of the agricultural practices lead to deforestation, soil erosion, overgrazing, degradation of water resources, and loss of biodiversity. In urban areas, a major problem is pollution, caused principally by improper treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes. Because of these two problems, Tanzania’s air and water have been contaminated with pollutants that are detrimental to human health.

Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology

The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) in Arusha, Tanzania, is one in a network of Pan-African Institutes of Science and Technology located across the continent. These Institutes, which are the proud brainchildren of Nelson Mandela, are training and developing the next generation of African scientists and engineers with the goal of furthering the continent’s development through the application of science, engineering, and technology (SET). NM-AIST is being developed to become a world-class research-intensive training institution, mainly for postgraduates and post-docs in SET-related fields.

To address Tanzania’s serious environmental problems, NM-AIST recognized the need for a course on environmental governance. The goal was to educate both the environmental industry and environmental champions within communities and government agencies.

The Project

In the spring of 2015, AWB volunteers Jania Chilima and Ayodele Olagunju were posted to NM-AIST to develop and deliver a course on Environmental Governance and Decision-Making. The course focused on environmental governance in developing nations, and specifically on the context of Tanzania’s transitioning economy. It consisted of four modules: (i) Environmental Governance; (ii) Environmental Impact Assessment; (iii) Human and Ecological Risk Assessment; and (iv) Professional Practice and Ethics for Environmental Professionals. Two cross-cutting themes, Environmental Decision Making and Conflict Management in Resource Communities, were taught separately. To enrich the participants’ learning experience, the class made a field visit to a domestic biogas facility site in Arusha.

Twenty-six participants attended the course—10 NM-AIST master’s and doctoral graduate students and 16 others representing industry and municipal government, as well as students and lecturers from other universities). Participants came from different sub-disciplines in the field of environment, including: Biotechnology/Material Science, Natural Resource Management, Land Use Planning, Wildlife Management, Sustainable Agriculture, Geography, and Environmental Education. It was the intent of the course to prepare change leaders who are critical thinkers and are equipped with superior methodologies and internationally acknowledged environmental decision-making tools.

The course also created a healthy social space for networking of ideas and opportunities. Some students are beginning to form collaborations in the area of research and environmental advocacy.

The knowledge gained, the experience shared, and the network created will be valuable to me throughout my career path.

The class wasn’t just a class but a family, too.

– NM-AIST participants

 

Outcomes

The course has been incorporated into NM-AIST’s list of course offerings and will be taught annually in its School of Materials, Energy, Water, and Environmental Sciences. In addition, NM-AIST is committed to opening the course to nonstudents who are involved in the private and public environmental sectors, so that it can have an immediate impact on the environmental problems in Tanzania. Moreover, some of the course participants, who were faculty members from other Tanzanian universities, are going to adopt the teaching methods used in the course. Lastly, the relationship between NM-AIST and the University of Saskatchewan, the home university of the AWB volunteers, has been strengthened and opened up new areas of cooperation.

Impacts

The course provided training to civil servants and environmental activists working together to overcome the severe environmental problems that adversely affect rural and urban Tanzania. This collaboration among skilled and dedicated environmentalists will result in improved practices in agriculture and animal husbandry, which in turn will make available more and better agricultural products for Tanzanians. In addition, it will improve the quality of the water and air in urban Tanzania, thereby lowering the risk of diseases that arise from degraded urban environments.

Date: 2015

Volunteers:

  • Jania Chilima, Ph.D. Candidate & Researcher in Environment and Sustainability, Edwards School of Business, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
  • Ayodele Olagunju, Environmental Assessment Consultant & Lecturer, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
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East Africa – School of Nursing and Midwifery

Countries in East Africa suffer from a drastic shortage of healthcare providers, especially in the rural regions. For example, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda currently have desperately few nurses and midwives to serve their populations. In many communities in developing countries, nurses do what doctors would do if they were available: treat wounds and illnesses, prescribe medications, set bones, bandage sprains, and deliver babies. But there are far too few nurses available to serve these countries’ populations.

Aga Khan University (AKU) School of Nursing and Midwifery was created to upgrade the qualifications of working nurses from the designation Enrolled Nurse to that of Registered Nurse and from Registered Nurse to the Bachelor of Science in Nursing level. The skills taught in these university programs are desperately needed to meet the health needs of the region.

Enhancing the Student Experience – Nursing and Midwifery

In 2012, AWB undertook a project to enhance the quality of nursing education at the AKU School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa, through a faculty-development program that promotes student engagement in the learning process.

The volunteers assisted faculty members in several ways:

  • Increasing their use of student-centred education, discipline, and evaluation mechanisms
  • Lesson planning, in-class observation, and co-teaching
  • Launching a comprehensive faculty-development plan
  • Developing a new curriculum, research planning and design, and student feedback and faculty-evaluation mechanisms

Thanks to the success of the first phase of this project, AKU asked the volunteers, Marilyn Chapman and Pammla Petrucka, to return, extending the project to the summer of 2015.

Upgrading Faculty Research Skills – Nursing and Midwifery

Marilyn Chapman returned to AKU in Nairobi for two subsequent working visits in 2013 and 2014, focusing primarily on helping faculty members use learner-centred and interactive teaching strategies. The project also involved overseeing the development of the curriculum for an innovative, inter-professional undergraduate program – a collaborative project between the nursing and medical nursing studies programs. Marilyn also continued her work with AKU faculty in helping them write articles based on research projects undertaken in 2012.

Pammla Petrucka also continued her role as a faculty mentor, focusing on expanding the research capacity of AKU faculty members. In November 2013, she made a working visit to AKU in Dar es Salaam, and in May 2014 she returned to work on each of AKU’s three East African campuses. In addition to continuing her work mentoring faculty members, she worked with the faculty’s senior leadership on the faculty development plan and the expansion of the nursing program.

Date: 2012-2018

Volunteers:

  • Pammla Petrucka, Associate Professor, the College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan
  • Marilyn Chapman,, Retired Professor, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Columbia
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